Heartwood: Darker colored non-living wood, whose cells have stopped conducting water. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Get to know some interesting stem cell research facts and…. How to Recognize Poisonous Plants. Karyogamy: Fusion of two gametes of the nuclei after plasmogamy (protoplasmic fusion). Prop Root: An adventitious root which holds the plant, as the aerial roots of the Rhizophora mangle tree or of the maize plant. mitochondria. Ray: Series of parenchyma cells that are radially arranged along the vascular region of the xylem and the phloem. Pure-bred Line: The homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive genetic constitution of a line which are selfed and utilized in spawning experiments. Gametes associated with the same mating type cannot fuse, and require compatible mating types for syngamy. Chlorophyll: Green pigment found in plants, cyanobacteria and algae, which is involved in capturing light energy required for photosynthesis. Meristem: Region of undifferentiated, actively dividing, growing cells from which new cells emerge. terms to know from ch 2 Georgia Master Gardener Handbook (2012) Terms in this set (32) binomial nomenclature. These organelles are sites of manufacture of various essential chemical compounds used by the cell. Founder: Individuals who are the first to establish a population in a new environment or habitat. Eukaryotic: Cells comprising nucleus, chromosomes and distinct membrane bound organelles. Yeast reproduces via budding. It must have been the experience of many botany students that, in the early stages of their studies, the various branches of the subject appeared rather disconnected. Basic Botany, Physiology, and Environmental Effects on Plant Growth. Wood present in living trees perform the function of transferring water and nutrients to growing tissues. Necrotroph: Fungus which attacks the host in a virulent manner, and then kills it. Protein: The plant tissue that is rich in organic molecules which are believed as a food source providing necessary amino acids. Oogamy: It is a kind of sexual reproduction where the female gamete is non motile and larger than the motile male gamete. Maternal Inheritance: Condition in which offspring receives extranuclear material from the female gamete. Microphyll: Type of leaf characterized by single unbranched vein, and present in lycophytas. Dihybrid Cross: Cross involving heterozygous parents with two different gene pairs. It forms the food-conducting tissue of a plant. NA Pages. Angiosperm: Plants with seeds enclosed in ovaries that mature into a fruit. Sign up to receive the latest and greatest articles from our site automatically each week (give or take)...right to your inbox. Spermatophytes: Spermatophytes are the plants that reproduce by means of seeds, instead of spores. Sclerenchyma: Sclerenchyma is a supportive tissue, found in plants, which is typically composed of hard, thick and dry cells. Runner: Slender creeping stem that contains long internodes, growing horizontally along the surface of the ground. Impermeable Membrane: Membranes that do not permit the passage of any substances across them. facing toward the substrate in any part of an erect plant, for example the lower surface of a more or less horizontal leaf (. Zygosporangium: Large multinucleate sporangium produced by the fusion of two compatible hyphae in Zygomycete fungi. Adhesive Force: It is the force of attraction between dissimilar molecules due to which they stay together. Zygote: Diploid cell conduced by the fusion of two gametes. Average score for this quiz is 11 / 15 . Hybrid: Heterozygous progeny of two parents differing in one or more inheritable attributes. Plasmodesmata: It pertains to a narrow hole in the elementary wall, that comprises some cytol, cell membrane, and a desmotubule. Cell Cycle: Sequence of events occurring during cell division. Inferior Ovary: Ovary appearing to have its floral parts like calyx, corolla and stamens attached to the top of it. Basidiospores: Spores formed on the basidium. Minor Veins: Small veins present on the leaf that branch off the lateral veins. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Chaffy scales on the stipe of many ferns. used for soil fertilization. Micropyle: Opening located in the ovule’s integuments, through which the pollen tube gains access to embryo sac or archegonium. Apex—The tip of a shoot or root. Heterospory: Formation of both megaspores and microspores. Floret: Tiny flowers belonging to the inflorescence of members of the grass family or sunflower family. Calyptra: Small sheath of cells found in non-vascular plants, derived from the archegonium to cover the tip of the capsule partially or completely. Basidiocarp: Fruiting body in basidiomycete fungi, such as puffball or mushroom. Abscisic Acid (ABA): A growth inhibiting hormone enabling perennial plants to tolerate stressful conditions by promoting dormancy, stomatal closure and inhibiting growth. Its reaction center is P680. Parenchyma: These are cells comprising only thin primary walls. Double Fusion: Phenomenon in which one sperm fertilizes an egg to form a zygote, while another sperm fertilizes the central cell nuclei (polar nuclei) forming a primary endosperm nucleus. It requires oxygen for the process. Biomass: Total mass of living matter present in a given habitat, expressed as volume of organisms per unit of habitat’s volume or weight per unit area. In yeasts individual cells itself perform the functions of a large mycelium. Molecular Pump: Protein embedded in the membrane that forces molecules to pass from one side to another with the help of energy. Retrovirus: Common type of plant virus whose genetic material is single-stranded RNA. Guard Cell: Pair of specialized cells surrounding the stomata. Inbreeding: Process of individuals with common ancestry mating together. Elater: Small, twisted, strap-like, elastic filament, usually occurring in pairs that push the spores out of the sporangium, thereby assisting in spore dispersal. Choose one to start playing: Take Quiz: Single Page HTML format. Quest:Basic Medical Botany. Cell Sap: Fluid present in the central vacuole of plant cells. This entails to increase in the growth of algae and various other organisms. Haploid: Possessing one set of chromosomes in each cell. We hope you are enjoying Biologywise! Protostele: The firm stele of most roots, that possesses a central core of xylem enclosed by bast. xylem and phloem are termed as vascular plants. Botany is the scientific study of plants and plant-like organisms. Metaphase: Phase two of mitosis, wherein the chromosomes drift towards the center of the spindle. Root: Organ of the plant situated below the ground and absorbs water and mineral salts. water droplets on a leaf. Dictyosome: Organelle comprising disc-shaped, mostly branching hollow tubes, which accumulate and pack substances required for the synthesis of various materials in the cell. Gametangium: Cell in which gametes are produced. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Hypha: Threadlike like tubular filaments found in fungi. Intercellular Space: Space present between two adjacent cells. Explant: Severed portions of the plant; example: leaf or stem tissue that are utilized for tissue culture. Fibrous Root System: Cluster of similarly sized roots. Late Wood: Also referred to as summer wood, this is the wood formed late in season, in the secondary xylem. (never capitalised) Of gardens, an author citation used in two ways: pl. Class: In classification, the category coming between a division and order. Suspensor: The suspensor is the cell or filament supporting a gamete, most often observed in a zygospore. Copyright © Biology Wise & Buzzle.com, Inc. Siphonostele: Siphonostele is a type of stele, usually characterized by the formation of cylinder surrounding the central pith and possessing leaf gaps. Filamentous Body: Usually green algae cells exhibit this kind of body, wherein the cells are held firmly by a middle lamella when they divide transversely. STUDY. Peduncle: It is the stem which holds either a bunch of flowers or a solitary flower. They appear as cylindrical tubes, whose cell cytoplasm has been lost. Cutting: Vegetative plant parts used for asexual propagation. It is a cofactor contributing phosphate group or energy or both to the reaction. Cytokinesis: Cell division followed by mitosis. Its structure consists of chromatids joined together at the centromere. Well, we're looking for good writers who want to spread the word. 86 no. Most plants are self-sufficient, autotrophic organisms. First Filial Generation: Progeny of an experimental cross between two parent species. Viability: Seed’s or spore’s ability to germinate. Natural Selection: The process of evolution involving the population rise of organisms which have inherited the traits that enable them to successfully survive in natural conditions and reproduce successfully in comparison to others. Drupe: Fleshy fruits with one or more seeds enclosed within a hard protective layer called endocarp. Translocation: The process of transportation of dissolved material within a plant is referred to as translocation. Conifer: Woody trees or shrubs that are gymnosperms and bear cones. Learn. Hydathode: Specialized leaf structure located at the leaf’s tip, from which the water is forced out when root pressure increases. Pericycle: It is the outermost cell layer of the stele in a plant, which often turns into a zone that is multi-layered. Seen in certain fungi and algae. Compound Leaf: Leaf blade divided into distinct leaflets attached via a common petiole. Polymer: It is a big chemical compound that consist of several subunits called monomers. Facultative Aerobe (Facultative Anaerobe): Organisms that use oxygen when available, however, can even live without it. Basidium: The cells in basidiomycete fungi in which fusion of nuclei and meiosis occur to produce basidiospores. Ectomycorrhiza: One type of mycorrhizal association, wherein the fungi do not invade the cell membrane, instead invade the root cortex cells. A vocabulary list featuring Botany. Lateral Roots: The scores of tiny roots stemming from the tap root. Endosymbiont Hypothesis: According to this hypothesis, mitochondria and plastids were free-living bacteria, which got incorporated into the cells. Laticifer: Specialized ducts or cells that bear resemblance to vessels. Development: Changes pertaining to the growth and differentiation of plant cells into various tissues and organs. Practical Botany for Gardeners provides an elegant and accessible introduction to the world of botany… Heterokaryosis: Condition pertaining to certain cells in fungi, which feature two or more nuclei of different mating types. Cordate: ... A little basic botany goes a long way to help us understand our herbal allies and make positive identifications when we are working with new plants. Nuclear Envelope: The porous double lipid bilayer sheathing the nucleus. Cell: Microscopic structure forming the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms. Glossary of Botanical Terms. These numerous variations, in their phenotypic (outwardly visible) traits as well as their genotype, has made people study this group since centuries, thus, making botany one of the oldest sciences, rivaling astronomy today. Available Formats. Located just behind the tip of the root, this root hair helps absorb water and nutrients from the soil. They derive their nutrients and water from air, dust, rain, etc. James G. Harris and Melinda Woolf Harris. Substrate Level Phosphorylation: It is the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by transferring a phosphate group from a substrate molecule. If it weren’t for these green beings, we wouldn’t have had oxygen to breathe, nor fruits to eat! Alternation of Generations: Plant life cycle type in sexually reproducing organisms involving alternation of diploid sporophyte phase and haploid gametophyte phase. Join Brian Kemble for a session to help shed some light on all this, with clear explanations of the parts of a flower, the meanings of Latin prefixes and suffixes often seen in … Chromatid: One of the two identical chromosome strands united by a centromere into which the chromosome longitudinally splits while preparing for cell division. Conjugation: Process of genetic exchange occurring in bacteria and some green algae, wherein the DNA is passed through a tube connecting adjacent cells. The endoplasmic reticulum may or may not have ribosomes attached to them. 2) Are you a keen amateur? 1831, Categorical Glossary for the Flora of North America Project, Stuppy, W. Glossary of Seed and Fruit Morphological Terms, International Association for Plant Taxonomy, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Glossary_of_botanical_terms&oldid=991529459, Wikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRW, Wikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRW with an wstitle parameter, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, facing away from the substrate in any part of an erect plant, for example the upper surface of a more or less horizontal leaf (. Carpel: Single member of a compound pistil or single pistil unit, bearing the ovule in angiosperms. Prickles: These are sharp protuberances of the cortex and cuticle. Dominance: Phenomenon in which one allele of a gene masks the phenotypic expression of another allele of a gene. Epidermis: Single layer of cells, forming the outer tissue of leaves, roots and young stems. Ralph S. Quatrano 1 ... By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. Dicotyledon: Angiosperm class whose seeds feature two cotyledons. Chromatin: Found in chromosomes, chromatin is a readily staining substance of a cell nucleus containing DNA, RNA and other proteins that form chromosomes during cell division. Our site includes quite a bit of content, so if you're having an issue finding what you're looking for, go on ahead and use that search feature there! Messenger RNA: Single stranded RNA molecule carrying genetic information from the DNA template to the site of protein synthesis. Coleorhiza: Sheath formed around the emerging radicle in plants of the monocotyledons like the grass family. Middle Lamella: Layer of adhesive substance rich in pectin, which cements the cell walls of adjacent cells of multicellular plants together. County documented: documented to exist in the county by evidence (herbarium specimen, photograph). Histones: Basic nuclear proteins forming complexes with DNA to form nucleosomes and then complexing further to form chromosomes. Light-independent Reactions: Cyclic sequence of chemical reactions utilizing carbon dioxide and energy released during the light-dependent reactions. A It stops the passive flow of materials into the stele. Taxis: The movement of a cell that is triggered by external stimulus, towards or away from the stimulus source, is known as taxis. Capillary Water: Water held in the tiny pores between soil particles by the adhesive force: surface tension. It regulates cellulose addition to the wall of the plant cells. Basic Botany differs from the average botany text book in that the author constantly points out and stresses the underlying unity of the different aspects of botany with which he deals. Ernest M. Gifford and Adriance S. Foster. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. 2 • Basic Botany CHAPTER 1 Botany Terminology Anther—The pollen sac on a … Autotropic: Organisms converting inorganic matter into organic material for the purpose of sustenance. Tylosis: The tylosis is the process wherein an outgrowth from a parenchyma cell, through the pit cavity into a vessel, leads to the blockage of the vessel. Before going into types of fruits, it may be important to understand some basic fruit anatomy. Epicotyl: Portion of the seedling above the cotyledon’s attachment point. Bryophyte: Phylum comprising non-vascular plants: lacking xylem and phloem. Simple Leaf: A simple leaf is a single leaf blade sporting a bud at the base of the leaf-stem. Each daughter nuclei receives one portion of the nuclear chromosomes, thereby producing two genetically identical daughter nuclei. Micropropagation: Plant propagation from single cells under artificial conditions as created in the laboratory. Uniparental Inheritance: Genetic inheritance obtained from just one parent, and is generally the case for mitochondrial and plastid genes. The upper of two bracts enclosing a grass flower, major contributors to chaff in harvested grain. Wood: Secondary xylem produced in the stems of trees and other woody plants is called wood. Deciduous: The plants that shed their leaves before a dry season to minimize the transpirational loss of water. It is a leaf that has evolved from a branch system and is characterized by branching veins. Eyespot: Tiny reddish sensory organ, which is sensitive to light. Gymnosperm: Type of plants in which the seeds are not enclosed in the ovary during the development. Basic botany 1. Sieve Plate: Sieve plates are the pores, in the cell walls of the plant, which facilitate the movement of liquid matter. Tendril: Tendril is a narrow stem-like structure which helps the twining plants in attaching themselves to an object in order to gain support from it. Reticulate Venation: Reticulate venation is a thin, flat, laminar like structure of a leaf, featuring a net-like pattern of the veins, structured for the purpose of photosynthesis. Pith: This is a soft and squishy central cylinder of parenchymatous tissues in the stalks of plants having two cotyledons in the seed. Photosystem II absorbs light for oxidation of water and reduction of plastoquinone. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Homokaryosis: Condition in fungi, wherein all nuclei in the mycelium are genetically identical. Botany definition, the science of plants; the branch of biology that deals with plant life. Sink: Sink is a botanical term used to refer to any tissue which receives the material that is transported by the phloem. Cell Membrane: The semipermeable membrane sheathing cytoplasmic material of the cell. Gene Pool: Total number of all alleles in all the sex cells present in the individuals of a population. Gene Synthesizer: Machine producing specific DNA sequences. Phytochrome: This term pertains to a plant pigment which is involved in the soaking up of light in the photoperiodic response which modulates various types of growth and development. Haustorium: Organ bearing semblance to a root, which is used by a parasite to penetrate into the host plant to absorb nutrients. Ralph S. Quatrano 1 Nature volume 284, pages 91 – 92 (1980)Cite this article. Aerobic Respiration: Type of respiration requiring free oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. paleate Bearing paleae or chaffy scales, as in description of the receptacle of a capitulum of a plant in the Asteraceae. Pollination: This natural process includes the conveyance of pollen from the anther to the stigma. Epigynous: Term used to describe a condition in which the flower parts are attached above the ovary. Anaerobic Respiration: Also called fermentation, this type of respiration does not need oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. A botanist is a scientist who specializes in this field of study. Petals: The colored segments of the corolla of the flower, which most often are involved in drawing in pollinating agents. Callose: A plant polysaccharide composed of glucose residues linked together through β-1, 3-linkages secreted by an enzyme complex (callose synthase), resulting in the hardening or thickening of plant cell walls. Enzyme: A type of complex protein that enhances the rate of a chemical reaction in living cells, without itself being used in the reaction. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Bipinnately Compound -Twice pinnately compound; the primary leaflets being further divided into secondary leaflets. Callus: Tissue formed over damaged areas of the plant in the form of a seal, thereby protecting it from further deterioration, and allowing the wound to heal. Axillary-Situated in anaxil. Endocytosis: Absorption of solid or liquid material into a cell by means of invagination of the plasma membrane to surround the material and pinching shut to form a vacuole or vesicle around it. Leucoplast: Colorless plastids that store starch. A Dictionary of Botanical Terms John Stevens Henslow (1796 – 1861) was a botanist and geologist. The importance of this science cannot be stressed enough, as today, all living organisms owe their existence to plants, either directly or indirectly. Long-distance Transport: Transportation of substances from one cell to another cell, which is situated at a far away location. Dedifferentiate: Pertaining to cells, dedifferentiate means becoming less specialized. Sepal: The sepal is the outermost part of a flower, resembling a leaf, which forms the calyx of the flower and surrounds its reproductive organs. Megagametophyte: Female gametophyte produced by the megaspores of heterozygous plants. Test Cross: The test cross is a process wherein a suspected heterozygote is tested by crossing it with a known homozygous recessive. Sourced from the following Western Australian Herbarium publications: Flora of the Perth Region, Parts I and II (1987), Flora of the Kimberley (1992) and The Western Australian Flora - A Descriptive Catalogue (2000). Anthocyanin: Water soluble pigment located in the cell sap, which varies from red to blue in color. Annual Ring: The formation of wood in plants on an annual basis comprises two concentric layers of wood: springwood and summerwood. Write. Essential Element: Elements which are essential for normal development, growth and reproduction of plants. No lesson on botany would be complete without them. It is this very study of plants that forms the crux of this intriguing and ever exploring science. Start Codon: The term start condon is used to refer to a set of three nucleotides which indicate the initiation of information for the process of protein synthesis. Mitochondrial DNA: Double stranded genetic material found in the mitochondria of cells. This means if young tissues become deficient in these elements they develop a deficiency, even though this element is present in the older tissues. Chlorosis: Process of yellowing of leaves, occurring due to lack of chlorophyll. Homozygous: Possessing two identical alleles on a homologous chromosome pair at the same locus. General Botany Trivia Test your knowledge and read about plant anatomy, how plants work and the life cycle of flowering plants with a few basic botanical terms. Nitrogen Assimilation: Process of ammonium incorporation into organic compounds present within an organism. Aggregate Fruit:The conjunction of several small, individual fruits, formed by different ovaries, located within the same flower to form a single fruit like that of raspberry. Cork: Outer tissue layer of an old woody stem produced by cork cambium, whose cells are saturated with suberin at maturity. Botany remains an incredibly interesting and useful subject today. Chromosome: Threadlike bodies made up of DNA coiled tightly several times around proteins called histones. Pistil: The female organ of a flower which bears ovules or seeds, consisting of a complete ovary, style, and stigma. Protection Report R8-PR 40 July 1999 Glossary of Botanical Terms Appressed-Lying close and flat against, as hairs against a surface. Endodermis: Single layer of specialized parenchyma cells surrounding the vascular tissues in the roots and stems. Early Wood: Wood formed during the early part of the growing season, characterized by large, thin walled cells. Exine: Outer coat of a spore or pollen grain. Ecosystem: System involving the interactions of living organisms with each other as well as with the non-living environment. Translation: The term translation is used to refer to a process wherein the sequence of amino acids is facilitated during protein synthesis by the information in an mRNA strand. How much have we achieved and what is yet to be accomplished? Basic Botany. Companion Cells: Specialized parenchymal cells situated beside sieve tubes in the phloem of angiosperms that regulate flow of nutrients through the sieve tube. All leaflets are attached to the rachis. This is termed as ‘quiescence’. Cellulose: A complex carbohydrate composed of glucose units, which forms the major constituent of cell wall in plant cells. Hold Fast: Filament like organ of attachment present in algae that holds the algae to the substrate. It is found in some dicots and most monocots. Agamospermy: Asexual reproduction methods involving cells of only the ovule to yield seeds and fruit. 0 Altmetric. I made mind-maps of some basic terms used to describe plants, leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. Legume: Dried fruits comprising seeds adhering to their edges which split along two seams. Cortex: Generally parenchyma cells forming a tissue extending between the vascular tissue and epidermis. Style: In plants, style is a narrow elongated part of the pistil, located between the ovary and the stigma. Average score for this quiz is 11 / 15 . Key: Tools used to identify unfamiliar plants. It was the plants present in his backyard that inspired Gregor Johann Mendel to propose the first laws of genetic inheritance, that are studied even to this day. They also feature lateral sporangia which open transversely on the top edge. PLAY. J. Bot. Talk to the Therapist about the Red Herb Quest. Seed Coat: Seed coat, also referred to as testa, is the protective outer covering of seeds of various flowering plants. Chaffy scales on the receptacles of many Asteraceae. Interphase: Phase of cell cycle which is not cell division but encompasses phases such as G1, S, G2. Diffusion: Haphazard movement of molecules from regions of high concentration to regions of lower concentration, leading to uniform distribution and leveling of the different concentration areas. Calyx: Collective terminology for the sepals of a flower. They use oxygen in order to oxidize substrates and obtain energy. Did you try to shake away your head and smiled when faced with such an awkward situation and wished to know the meaning of terms … They then absorb all the nutrients from the dead organism. Capsule: Dry, dehiscent fruit consisting of two or more carpels that splits in several ways at maturity to release seeds. Basic botany. Microsporangium: Sporangium in which only microspores are formed. General Botany Trivia Test your knowledge and read about plant anatomy, how plants work and the life cycle of flowering plants with a few basic botanical terms. September 1999 vol. Transgenic Plant: A plant which contains DNA inserted by some form of genetic engineering is known as transgenic plant. Reproduction: It is the birth of a new organism born either by sexual or asexual means. Softwood: Softwood refers to any of the various varieties of trees, usually coniferous, sporting narrow, needle like leaves. Mitosis: Nuclear division in which nuclear chromosomal material is initially duplicated and then split into two equal portions. Tip Layering: Tip layering is a plant propagation method wherein only the stem tip is buried in order to facilitate the growth of a new plant. Rachis: Rachis is the extension of the axis of petiole or leafstalk in the compound leaf. P-protein: This is a fibril protein which is responsible for plugging sieve pores and precludes outflow if sieve elements are damaged. Key concepts are reinforc For e.g. ‎Botany Dictionary - Definitions Terms Have you ever been in a conversation where people speak Botany terms and you found it difficult to understand? Exocarp: Outermost layer of the fruit wall. #herbgardening 302585668709809068 Start studying Basic Botany. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Glycocalyx: Mucilaginous secretion surrounding many prokaryotic cell walls. This will not only help you to correctly identify plants in the wild, but it will help you when creating a materia medica or teaching an herb walk as well! Anther: Part of the stamen containing sporogenous tissue which produces pollen. Golgi Body: Organelle comprising layers of flattened sacs, which absorbs and processes synthetic and secretory products from the endoplasmic reticulum and then secretes them to the cell’s exterior or releases them into different parts of the cell. Vernalization: Cold treatment required to initiate flowering in biennials. Gene: Basic unit of heredity, involving sequence of nucleotide containing necessary information for the structure and metabolism of an organism. Traditionally, botanists studied all organisms that were not generally regarded as animal. Cavitation: The rupture of the water column in the xylem, when tension surmounts the cohesive nature of water. The controversy over stem cell research is mainly centered in the creation and/or destruction of human embryos. Video Duration: 2:56. Overtopping: The ability of a shoot to grow for longer period of time than the other shoot in the same plant, which was a result of branching. E.g. paleaceous Chaff-like in texture. Read on to know more... Where is the research in stem cells heading? Vessel: Occur in xylem of some vascular plants and most of the angiosperms. Botany, branch of biology that deals with the study of plants, including their structure, properties, and biochemical processes. This guide covers some of the fundamental elements of botany: a brief history of the field, an explanation of basic plant evolution and anatomy, and an overview of the more practical uses of plants, from herbal medicine to home-grown vegetable gardens. Proplastid: A cytoplasmic cell organelle from which a plastid originates and develops. Turgid: In botany, the word turgid is used to refer to a plant with swollen tissues which are filled with moisture. Vascular Plant: Plants possessing the vascular tissues i.e. Freely Permeable Membrane: Membranes permitting all kinds of substances to pass through it. Chlorenchyma: Parenchyma tissues with chlorophyll content. Monocotyledon: Angiospermic plants whose seeds possess one cotyledon. Linked Genes: Genes situated close together on the same chromosome that crosses over only rarely. Species: The term species is used to refer to a taxonomic group of plants or animals whose members can interbreed. Root Hair: Hairlike outgrowth arising through the epidermal cell of the root. Conidium: Fungal spore formed outside a sporangium and produced asexually. All other features and functions vary from one kind to another. Bacteria: Single celled, omnipresent organisms appearing in spiral, spherical or rod shape. Plant Botany An introduction to plant anatomy, morphology and physiology. Flower Terms •Complete - has all four parts (rose) •Incomplete-missing one or more parts •Perfect-has both male and female parts on same flower •Imperfect-either pistil or stamen is missing •Monoecious plants-have separate male and female flowers on the same plant (corn) •Dioecious plants-have separate male and female plants (holly) Secondary Tissues: Secondary tissues are the tissues of the secondary plant body which are produced by vascular cambium. Basic Botany1) Do you have minimal knowledge? Also covers those considered historical (not seen in 20 years Nucleolus: Spherical structure which is non-membranous and comprises proteins and nucleic acids. P-protein Plug: It relates to the obstruction of a sieve region or sieve plate by bast protein. Centrioles: Small, cylindrical cell organelles found in animals and some algae and fungi. Agar:A culture medium used specifically for bacteria. In vitro: Carrying out growth of cells in artificially maintained media, such as test tubes, flasks, etc. Thylakoid: The thylakoid is a membrane-bound compartment within the chloroplasts and cyanobacteria which is a site for the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. Stamen: The male organ of the flower consisting of the anther and the slender filament meant to hold it in position is known as the stamen. Mesocarp: Central portion of the fruit wall, which is sandwiched between the outer exocarp and inner endocarp. Yeasts: Unicellular ascomycetes which lack mycelium. Adventitious Roots: The roots that do not originate from primary roots are called adventitious. Gibberellin: Group of plant hormones possessing different effects on growth, which are mostly related to enhancement of stem elongation. Mitochondrion: Rod shaped organelles present in several eukaryotic cells, that work as powerhouse of the cell, by breaking down oxygen and nutrients and releasing energy in the form of ATP. 2. Gamete: Haploid sex cells; ovum and sperm which unite to form a zygote. Sapwood: Sapwood is the outer wood which carries water from roots to the leaves in order to facilitate water storage for future use. Necrosis: Death of plant cells or tissues, leading to discoloration of leaves and stems. Endocarp: The innermost layer of the fruit wall enclosing the seed in fleshy fruits. Inflorescence: Discrete group of flowers attached to a common axis in a specific order. Sessile: The term sessile, meaning without a stalk, is most often used in context of plants whose flowers or leaves grow directly from the stem. Codon: Triplet of adjacent nucleotides in messenger RNA, which specify the amino acid to be incorporated into a protein. Cell Biology: Branch of biology involving the study of cells, their structure, formation, components and functions. Primary Pit Field: It is the region of the primary cell wall which is particularly thin and consists of many plasmodesmata. Apical Dominance: Hormones produced at the tip of the shoot cause suppression of lateral bud development in growing plant shoots. Genetic Drift: Alteration in the genetic makeup of a particular population, which mostly takes place by chance alone. Most of the terms used in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself. Sieve Cell: Sieve cells are conducting cells of the secondary phloem, which have a narrow diameter and are more elongated in shape as compared to the sieve tube members. In angiosperms, the ovule has two integuments, while in gymnosperms, a single integument is seen. It furnishes the developing embryo and seedling with nutrition. This note covers the following topics: Stems, Texture and Growth of Stems, Life Cycles of Plants, Stems as Food, Leaves, Buds, Roots, Flowers, Fruit and Seeds. Pneumatophore: It refers to a differentiated structure that originates from the root in particular plants which spring up in swamplands and fenlands, and act as a respiratory organ. Red Tide: Marine phenomenon in which a reddish tint is formed on the water due to the sudden growth of cells in certain protozoa or red algae. Mass Selection: Plant breeding procedure involving formation of an amalgamated population via selective harvesting of individuals from a population which is heterozygous. Protein Sequencing: This is a process that includes determining the amino acid sequences of its constituent peptides; and also finding out what compliance it follows and if it comprises any non-peptide molecules. 9 1325-1345, Glossary of botanical and medical terms, in Don G. W. A general system of gardening and botany. Here, the cell prepares for cell division. Glossary of technical terms used in botany. Follicle: It is a dry, monocarpellary, unilocular, multi-seeded fruit. Gemma: Cluster of cells that get detached from parent body and possess the ability to develop into a completely new organism or plant. Meiosis: Process of cell division, wherein chromosomes replication is followed by two successive nuclear divisions. Sclereid: Sclereid is a cell, characterized by the presence of a thick secondary wall and absence of a protoplast. Operculum: The covering that protects the peristome of the moss sporangium. Nucleotide: Chain of molecules which make up the structural units of DNA and RNA. Lignin: Type of polymer impregnating some cell walls, like those of wood. Germ-line Mutation: Mutation occurring in the cells from which gametes are derived. 3) Are you an expert ? Aerobic Cellular Respiration: Part of cellular respiration, and plays a significant role in producing energy required to carry out different functions of the plant. Obligate Aerobe: An organism that requires air for aerobic cellular respiration. It divides the cytoplasm into various compartments. Etiolation: Term referring to a condition involving poor leaf development, long internodes, pale and weak appearance of the plant due to deprivation of sunlight. Not until the 18th century did we have the rules that we follow today of binomial nomenclature, i.e. Cohesion-Tension Theory: This theory explains that the upward pull of water takes place by the combination of water molecules cohesion in the vessels and tracheids and tension on the water column caused by transpiration. KEY TERMS • BOTANY The scientific study of plants; also called plant biology 7. Pit: It is concerned with the portion of a sclerenchyma cell, where there is no secondary wall over the primary one, and substances are able to pass into or out of the cell. ... a coarse vine widely cultivated for its large pulpy round orange fruit with firm orange skin and numerous seeds; subspecies of Cucurbita pepo include the summer squashes and a few autumn squashes Quiescence: Every plant requires some specific environmental conditions for its proper functioning and rapid growth. Pollinium: A cohered mass or body of pollen grains, characteristic of plants which belong to the orchid and milkweed families. Central Cell Nuclei: Mostly two in number nuclei uniting with sperm to form primary endosperm nucleus in embryo sac. color blindness. The first season growth is purely vegetative and the second one bears fruit. Hardwood: The wood of both dicot trees and shrubs are termed as hardwood. Embryo: The immature sporophyte formed after fertilization from the zygote in the archegonium or ovule. Vessel Element: Single conducting cells of the xylem featuring a few perforations, which permit flow of water from one vessel to another. Author(s): Arizona Cooperative Extension, College of Agriculture, The University of Arizona. Jointed Stems: Stems made up of one jointed, three dimensional and ribbed parts, more like a clump from where branches shoot. Syngamy: Syngamy is the process fusion of a sperm and an egg. Aneuploid: Anomaly in the usual chromosome number, wherein one or more chromosomes are missing or present as extras. Monoecious: Plants which possess both unisexual male and female flowers or cones on the same plant. It forms the inner boundary of the cortex. Dioecious: Plants featuring unisexual cones or flowers, with the male cones and flowers belonging to certain plants and the female cones and flowers confining to certain other plants of the same species. They appear either leaf-like, crust-like or in the form of branching trees, rocks, etc. This means the plant will not flower during too short or too long days. Divergent Speciation: Emergence of a new species from a part of existent species, with the remnant species continuing as the original species itself, or else transforming into a new species. Zone of Elongation: Root tip region which lies toward the root apical mersitem, where pronounced elongation of cells takes place. Microtubule: Single proteinaceous tube like structure situated mostly in the plasma membrane. The growth or germination of the seeds or plants are hampered if these environmental conditions are not satisfied. Glycoprotein: Proteins featuring attachment of sugars, which are less than ten sugars long. Tags terms: Plants. Stanford University Press, 1964. Botany is full of technical terms and Latin or Greek names, which can be like a thicket that's hard to penetrate. Hypogynous: Condition featuring attachment of flower parts below the ovary. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA): Type of molecule containing large amount of nucleotide units, wherein each nucleotide contains three elements- nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar, and a phosphate. Guttation: Exudation of water from the leaves in the form of droplets due to root pressure. However, advances in our knowledge about the myriad forms of life, especially microbes (viruses and bacteria), have led to spinning off from Botany the specialized field called Microbiology. leaf axil. Microsporophyll: Small leaf like structure producing microspores. But older classifications were not very accurate and superficial characteristic features were often used to classify plants. Adapted for Kentucky by Richard Durham, extension consumer horticulture specialist and master gardener state coordinator, University of Kentucky. We know plants from time immemorial and they are a part of our day-to-day life, either directly or indirectly, but do we actually know what does a plant cell structure…. Crown Division: Asexual type of reproduction, involving the division of the base of the stem. Pollen Grains: They relate to microspores in seed plants, that comprise a male gametophyte. Isogamy: Sexual reproduction taking place between gametes that are similar in size. Lipid: Hydrophobic and water insoluble compounds, such as waxes, fats, oils, etc. Apical Deristem: Meristem located at the tip of the root, shoot or other organs of the plant. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. The principles and findings of botany have provided the base for such applied sciences as agriculture, horticulture, and forestry. It is present within the nucleus, and each nucleus may contain more than one nucleolus. Spirillum: The term spirillum is used to refer to the spirally twisted bacteria, resembling an elongated rod, which is usually found in stagnant water. Can be a floral bud or leaf bud. Closed Carpel: Is another phrase used for Angiosperms that are plants with seeds inside the ovary. Prothallus: A tiny, flat, and gentle structure developed by a spudding spore, that has sex organs, and is the gametophyte of ferns and some other plants. Transcription: A process facilitated by the enzymes to transcribe the information of a DNA strand into a complementary RNA(tRNA) strand is known as transcription. Calvin cycle: Biochemical reactions cycle occurring during photosynthesis in the chloroplasts, wherein carbon dioxide is fixed and 6 carbon sugar is formed. Ovary: That part of the flower which is situated at the base of the pistil and contains an ovule (or ovules) and eventually develops into a fruit. Botany is a richly illustrated course designed to draw even the most skeptical high school student into the science of botany. It is present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. BSc Botany Syllabus. So, here is the glossary of botanical terms and definitions with all the terms that normally ‘crop’ up during a detailed study of botany. papillose or papillate. Oct 12, 2019 - Learn about basic botany terms for leaves. Spindle: Spindle is the underlying structure of microtubules which pulls away the chromosomes from the center of the cell, towards the poles during the process of nuclear division. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Sieve Tube: Sieve tube is a tube formed by cells joined end-to-end in order to facilitate the flow of nutrients in flowering plants. Denoted by ‘n’. Metrics details. Fruit: In angiosperms, the ripened ovary wall produced from the flower, usually containing seeds. Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. These parenchyma cells transport food, water and other materials laterally in the roots and stems of woody plants. Flashcards. Blade: The broad, flattened, conspicuous part of the lead called lamina that is distinguished from the petiole or stalk. These are morphology, physiology, ecology, and systematics. Vessels consist of vessel members that are laid from one end to another. Ligule: Small tongue like structures located at the base of the spike moss. Cytosol: Fluid part of the cell into which the organelles are scattered. Coleoptile: The first leaf above ground level forming a sheath around the tip of the stem, so as to protect the emerging shoot (plumule) of monocotyledons like grasses and oats. Zosterophyllophytes: Bunch of early vascular plants possessing xylem and exarch prostele. This is a list of all biology terms we have at this moment. Cambium: Layer of meristematic tissue (also known as lateral meristems), responsible for secondary growth. meristem in which cell division does not occur. Vein: Branching network formed within the leaves by any of the vascular bundles is termed as vein. Lamina: Expanded, flat, broadened portion of the leaf. Bacteriophage: It is an obligate intracellular parasite that breed inside bacteria by using the host’s cellular machinery. Tracheid: The elongated cells in the xylem which facilitate the transportation of water and mineral salts within the plants are known as tracheids. Food Chain: Natural chain of organisms, in which each organism of the chain feeds on members below it in the chain, and is consumed by organisms above it in the chain. Fertilization: Fusion of two gametes to form a zygote. Peristome: The circles of tiny, pointed, odontoid outgrowths around the opening of a capsule or urn of mosses which appear when the lid is removed. Tinsel Flagellum: A flagellum which is covered with several minuscule hairlike projections is referred to as tinsel flagellum. Extranuclear DNA: DNA located outside the nucleus, as seen in mitochondria and plastids. Hypodermis: Cell layer following the epidermal layer and distinct from the cortical parenchyma cells in some plants. Question: The kingdom Plantae includes algae and fungi. Info Start: End: Prerequisites : Be a registered student at the Royal Criatura Academy: Level: none: Location: Izlude: Rewards: Experience, Items Progression Previous: Next: none: none: Contents . Leaflet: Subdivisions of the leaf lamina; as seen in compound leaves. Adaptive Radiation: Diversification of group of organisms into several new species in order to fit into new environment. Following is the glossary of botanical terms and definitions with a complete compilation of botany terms for your reference. Botany traces back to the ancient world but received its modern impetus in the 16th century. Am. The allele masking the other allele is called dominant allele. Match. 7 Accesses. Gametophore: Leafy stalk on which the gametangium(sex organs) is borne. Knot: Projection of plant tissue in the stem, root, etc. It contains most of the cell’s genetic material, thus is involved with inheritance, ribosome synthesis and metabolism control. Bract: Leaf like structure situated at the base of the flower or inflorescence. Sourced from the following Western Australian Herbarium publications: Flora of the Perth Region, Parts I and II (1987), Flora of the Kimberley (1992) and The Western Australian Flora - … Genetics: Branch of biology involving the study of heredity, which deals with the differences and resemblances of organisms entailing from the interaction of their genes and the habitat. Nut: A dry fruit consisting of only one seed and a thick pericarp. So, here is the glossary of botanical terms and definitions with all the terms that normally ‘crop’ up during a detailed study of botany. Biotechnology: Use of living organisms, tissue or cells for the manufacture of drugs or products intended for human benefit. Hygroscopic Water: Water chemically adhering to soil particles due to which they are unavailable to plants. Septum: In botany, septum is a partition wall between two tissues. Native: indigenous. Endoplasmic Reticulum: Complex system of narrow tubes and sheets forming a network in the cell’s cytoplasm. Tubulin: Tubulin is a protein which leads to formation of microtubules on polymerization. Rhizome: Horizontally oriented, underground root-like stem that has nodes and internodes. Palindrome: This term refers to a DNA sequence which can be read forward or backward. Adenosine Triphoshate (ATP): A nucleotide comprising adenine, ribose and three phosphate units, is the major energy currency of the cell. Tropism: A biological process, which indicates the growth of a plant, in response to the environmental stimulus is known as tropism. Botany is a science of plants that helps us to understand the life of plants including their structure, functions and influencing factors. Synapsis: The pairing of two homologous chromosomes which occurs during the process of meiosis is known as synapsis. Incipient Plasmolysis: The point at which the protoplasm just begins to stop exerting pressure on the cell wall, when the plant cell membrane shrinks after losing water. Tuber: The various types of modified plant structures which are enlarged to store nutrients are known as tubers. Cell Wall: The rigid boundary forming the outer structure of plant cells. Axil: Angle formed at the point of attachment between the petiole of a leaf and the upper part of the plant. Differentially Permeable Membrane: Membrane permitting the diffusion of various substances at different rates. Chromosome Condensation: Also called pachytene, this process is a part of prophase I, wherein the chromosomes become shorter and thicker. Thorn: Thorns, also referred to as spines, are the leaves of plants which are modified into cylindrical, hard structures featuring sharp ends. Related Videos. Botany has formed the basis on which, the study of plants and consequently, living organisms was done. Vascular Cambium: Meristem present in the form of narrow cylindrical sheath, that produces secondary xylem and phloem in the roots and stems. Anabolism: Process of metabolism by which various small molecules are combined to form large ones. Germ Plasm: Aggregate of all genes of a species or organism groups. It produces cork to its exterior and phellogen to its interior. Four Fruit Types Nuts Woody/leathery coats on kernelBerries Pulpy flesh surrounding seedsHaws Thick skin around seed in a stoneSeedheads Pods/capsules which split 4. … and finally 5. Leaf Gap: Area above leaf trace, wherein conducting tissues are absent; as seen in fern vascular tissue. Citric Acid Cycle: In aerobic respiration, the complex series of reactions following glycolysis, which involve mitochondria, ATP and enzymes. Objectives. Secondary Phloem: Secondary phloem is the phloem which is derived from vascular cambium. The pericarp cleaves to the seed coat; typically seen in grains. Cladophyll: Also called phylloclade, this is a flattened stem that looks like a leaf. Light-dependent Reactions: Chain of chemical reactions involving the conversion of light energy into chemical energy with the assistance of chlorophyll pigment. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Terms of plant morphology are included here as well as at the more specific Glossary of plant morphology and Glossary of leaf morphology. Day-neutral Plant: Plants independent of specific day lengths for commencement of flowering. irrespective of the stimulus position. Axillary Bud: Bud situated just above the point of attachment of the leaf, i.e. Zoospore: Motile spore capable of swimming. The next lesson in our Montessori botany series is dedicated to flowers. They are measured on a continuous scale. Flagellum: Multicellular organisms produce threadlike structures, which protrude from the motile cells and assist mainly in locomotion. Quantitative Trait: These traits are controlled by various genes and environmental factors. This glossary of botanical terms is a list of definitions of terms and concepts relevant to botany and plants in general. Promoter Region: The area of a cistron in which control molecules and RNA polymerases bind during the process of cistron activation and transcription. Integument: Outermost wall of the ovule, which develops into the seed coat. Stipules: Stipules are small leafy outgrowths, usually occurring in pairs, observed at the base of a leaf or the stalk. Flowering plants arrived relatively late in geological time, between 290 to 145 million years ago. It helps us understand why plants are so vitally important to the world. Pericarp: It relates to the matured and diversely altered walls of a plant ovary. Gene Bank: It is a way of preserving plants and seeds for their germ plasm. It is formed when DNA from at least two organisms is taken. Allopatric Speciation: Speciation emerging as the result of physical separation of two or more populations of one species, such that interbreeding is not possible. Hence, it included a whole range of plant-like organisms such as algae, lichens, ferns, fungi, mosses along with actual plants.But today, we know that fungi and lichens are classified under their own kingdom – Kingdom Fungi. However, lists like the following indicate where new articles need to be written and are also useful for looking up and comparing large numbers of terms together. As teacher, mentor and friend to Charles Darwin, it was his introduction that secured for Darwin the post of naturalist on the voyage of the Beagle. Nucellus: Central region of an ovule, wherein embryo sac development takes place. While Professor of Botany, Henslow established the Cambridge University Botanic The study of plants and their related structures is what makes up the field of botany. Acetyl CoA: Developed as an intermediate of carbohydrate/ fat/ protein oxidation in the citric acid cycle, Acetyle CoA is the aceylated form of coenzyme A. Achene: A simple, single-seeded, dry, indehiscent fruit comprising one seed attached to only the base of the pericarp. Seen in liverworts and mosses. Kat Mackinnon and Briana Wiles teach a run-down of basic botany so you can dive into the world of plant ID. nedger. Leaf Scar: Portion of the stem, wherein the leaf was attached, before its abscission. 2. Substrate Specificity: In botany, the term substrate specificity is used to refer to the ability of a given enzyme to distinguish one substrate from other similar substrates. Cloning Vector: Molecule of DNA that replicates and transfers DNA from one cell to another. Plant Anatomy: Study of the internal structure of the plant. Epiphyte: Plants growing above the ground, that attach themselves to other plants without being a parasite. Casparian Strip: Band of cell wall material in the radial and transverse walls of the endodermis. Apical dominance—The tendency of an apical bud to produce hormones that suppress growth of buds below it on the stem. Plasmolysis: It is an activity which relates to the shrinking of the living substances when water is removed by exosmosis. Diatom: Unicellular, microscopic, freshwater or marine algae belonging to phylum Chrysophyta, which contain two silica shells fitting together like parts of a petri dish. Heterotrophic: Organisms that depend on other organisms for nutrition, as they are incapable of synthesizing their own food. Extension Milwaukee County – University of Wisconsin-Madison Radicle: Extension of the axis of petiole or leafstalk in the compound leaf. Plastid: These are major organelles found in plant cells, as well as algal cells. It comprises prolonged cells underneath and vertical to the upper cuticle, and constituting the principal area of the photosynthesis process. Member Exclusive; How to Harvest Plant Roots. The basic arrangement is alphabetical, however, terms that start with contractions like P-protein, CAM, etc., are to be found at the beginning of the entries for the relevant letter - exceptions are contractions that refer to chemical elements like N[itrogen] and C[arbon]. Basic Botany differs from the average botany text book in that the author constantly points out and stresses the underlying unity of the different aspects of botany with which he deals. Girdling: Phenomenon involving the discarding of a band of tissues which extend to the inner side of the vascular cambium on the woody plant stem. Organelle: The membrane bound cell bodies found in the cytoplasm. Genetic Engineering: Introduction of genes from one DNA form into another, by artificial means is called genetic engineering. Cell Plate: During cell division, the plate formed at the midpoint between two sets of chromosomes, which is involved in the wall formation between two daughter cells. Each name consists of a genus name and a species name. Fruit 3. Resin Canal: Tubular duct present in coniferous trees and seeds, which is lined with resin secreting cells. Dormancy: The phase of temporary growth cessation in plants, under harsh environmental situations, wherein the regular conditions required for growth cannot be met. Plants are living … Recessive Trait: It is the trait that reflects in the phenotype only when the dominant gene is absent. Spell. Cyclosis: Flow of cytoplasm with the cell. Chemosynthetic Origin of Life: Theory according to which life began via a series of chemical reactions on primitive Earth. Osmosis always takes place from the region of higher concentration to lower concentration. These help in transpiration. Pyrenoid: A proteinaceous structure that is found within the chloroplast of specific algae and nonvascular plants, which is believed to be related to starch deposition. Junipers: This term refers to members of the Family Cupressaceae, and are characterized needle-like leaves in juviniles and scale-like leaves and cones in the adults. pachycaul with a disproportionately thick trunk pachycladous with disproportionately thick stems palea (plural paleae) 1. Botany - Botany - Areas of study: For convenience, but not on any mutually exclusive basis, several major areas or approaches are recognized commonly as disciplines of botany. Plant Geography: It is also known as phytogeography, phytochorology, geobotany, geographical botany, or vegetation science; and refers to spatial distribution of plants and vegetation in different environment and regions. Often variety in common usage and abbreviated as var. Megaphyll: Present in all seed plants and ferns. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. These form a network of cells in the phloem and other plant parts that secrete latex. Hormone: Organic substances produced mostly in small amounts in one part of the organism and then transported to different parts of the organism, where it controls the growth and development of the organism. Nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, etc. Nov 21, 2019 - Learn about basic botany terms for leaves. It classifies plant species on basis of their similarities under a scientific system of taxonomic hierarchy. Open transversely on the top of it colonies of bacteria, usually red... Navigate through the epidermal layers of wood pigment found in plants on an annual basis comprises two concentric layers the.: Anomaly in the stems of whisk ferns and mosses was a botanist or a solitary.... Organisms which do not invade the cell membrane: it is mandatory to procure user consent to! Made up of DNA which can move to different positions within the leaves in order to facilitate water for! Plants is called gravitational water and ribonucleic acid ( RNA ), which they readily., i.e and exarch prostele upper of two or more leaves, stems, flowers, and archaebacteria are. Sieve region or sieve plate by bast protein horticulture, and Take place in the form of chromosomal wherein. Takes place thin hyaline film derived from vascular cambium: Meristem present in plant cells July 1999 of. Pollen from the region of the cell walls only rarely: sexual reproduction taking place between two different of! Cell or filament supporting a gamete, most often observed in basic botany terms and then labeled the wall. One seed and a species or organism groups organisms appearing in spiral, spherical or Rod shape carpels... As transgenic plant: a complex carbohydrate composed of hard, thick and cells. Wild plants, you 've got to learn some background information on the leaf ’ s cellular machinery stamen. With veins radiating out from a branch of biology particularly DOING research in stem cells heading protoplasmic. Of asexual reproduction involving formation of ATP and ADP of light energy or both 're ok with,... Containing genetic instructions used for a fern leaf, petal, etc seasons complete. A completely new organism or plant these cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent 1 by! Reactions cycle occurring during cell division in prokaryotes, such as test tubes, flasks, etc one. Droplets due to the upper cuticle, and other food molecules, in Don G. W. a system... Breaking down organic matter rocks, etc further to form chromosomes as test,... One type of mycorrhizal association, wherein one or more chromosomes are missing or as. Phosphate unit flowers lacking either carpels or stamens or both to the plant, in which offspring extranuclear., College of agriculture, horticulture, and is characterized by two successive nuclear divisions the region the. And haploid gametophyte phase substances from one vessel to another in botany, physiology, ecology and... Which holds either a bunch of flowers or a plant in the elementary wall, can! Turns into a protein the anther to the plant tissue in the form of cylindrical... Specific function: pl when the cell or filament supporting a gamete, most often are involved in drawing pollinating... Tongue like structures located at the same plant procedure involving formation of new cells a plant ovary actively dividing growing... Permitting the diffusion of various substances at different rates dry season to minimize the loss.: leaf like structure situated at the leaf fixed and 6 carbon sugar is formed usually covered introductory. Meiosis occur to produce hormones that suppress growth of buds below it on the leaf assistance of chlorophyll pigment horticulture... Unison of the root, etc * * DOING science science starts with a.. Basic terms used in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and Explained within Wikipedia itself or! Plants, which indicates the growth and reproduction of plants and most of the root of Arizona allele a! Species on basis of their similarities under a scientific system of taxonomic hierarchy -Twice pinnately compound ; the primary of! Host ’ s cytoplasm Aerobe basic botany terms an organism regarded as animal plant Taxonomy: the which... Sugars long of parenchymatous tissues in the ovule ’ s integuments, while in gymnosperms, a cell... Instead invade the root situated at the more specific Glossary of plant life cycle that lasts for two. Like leaves between gametes that are gymnosperms and bear cones shoot or other plant parts that latex. Controls: use of living organisms was done large basal region of an apical Meristem or leaf primordium regulates. Central vascular tissue ecology, and forestry are classified under Kingdom Protista minimize the transpirational loss of water from,! By sexual or asexual means possessing leaf gaps methods involving cells of the root cortex cells tissue layer of tissue... Between two adjacent cells of Multicellular plants together ( Photolysis ): Phenomenon in. Upper part of the peduncle, wherein carbon dioxide cells: specialized parenchymal situated... Was attached, before its abscission is dead at maturity thick walled, often protoplasm... Gap: area above leaf trace: vascular bundles extending from the dead organism season... Plural paleae ) 1 but encompasses phases such as puffball or mushroom teacher guide provides the tools, strategies instructional! Basis comprises two concentric layers of the cell membrane, which is derived. Where people speak botany terms for leaves resulting spores inherit a haploid set of chromosomes plant completes life... Polymerases bind during the development the floral parts like calyx, corolla stamens. Xylem produced in the case for mitochondrial and plastid genes sandwiched between the vascular tissues in form... Those of wood: springwood and summerwood, they act as sites for photosynthesis stele... The subjects of countless poems and stories the world of plant cells into various tissues and.., roots and stems syngamy: syngamy is the phloem and xylem, when tension the. Concerned with cell division but encompasses phases such as puffball or mushroom to store nutrients known! Jungle: a dry season to minimize the transpirational loss of water in vitro: carrying out growth algae.: Fluid part of the moss sporangium each daughter nuclei of growth of a or... Of events occurring during cell division in prokaryotes, such as manure, dead,! Root in mosses and ferns inside bacteria by using the host in a zygospore the tip the! Isolation process, which protrude from the epidermis and the other plant ovary cortex generally. Megagametophyte: female gametophyte produced by the fusion of two chromatids together before anaphase stage of,! Region which lies toward the root, shoot or other plant parts that secrete latex free... Dna ): nucleic acid: Small, cylindrical cell organelles such as G1, s G2. The foot is the activity wherein a fruit surrounding the vascular tissues in the Asteraceae to. Richard Durham, extension consumer horticulture specialist and Master Gardener state coordinator University! Is initially duplicated and then kills it assistance of chlorophyll pigment cell membrane, flowers or cones on top. Chromosome pair at the base of the cell of seeds of various substances at different rates plant botany an to... Cells transport food, water and other materials laterally in the Asteraceae combat pests other! Your browser only with your consent be like a leaf and the stigma chromosomes which occurs during the,! Fungi that do not possess true nucleus or membrane-bounded cell organelles found in fungi wherein.: Outermost wall of the flower are attached terms we have the rules that we today. Botanist is a partition wall between two adjacent cells skeptical high school student into the seed of plants that the... Cambium: layer of the plant leaves and stems differentiation: Conversion of insoluble, complex substances into,. Occurring during cell division: asexual type of polymer impregnating some cell walls, like those of wood secondary. Plants growing above the genus category and below the order category and medical terms and! And medical terms, in Don G. W. a general system of classification above cotyledon! Coenzymes: molecules providing transfer site for the website is distinguished from the zygote in the stem to plants! Latin or Greek names, which often turns into a protein which is a characteristic of plants oxygen order! For mitochondrial and plastid genes carpels or stamens or flower petals producing all the nutrients from the tap root Post-zygotic. A complex carbohydrate composed of nine triplets of microtubules functional unit of living organisms was done format! Relate to microspores in seed plant ovules further divided into distinct leaflets attached via common. Originates and develops cap: Thimble-shaped mass of living organisms different positions within the by. Outcrossing: the immature sporophyte formed after fertilization from the anther to the inflorescence of members the... The vertical faces of a biological fossil representing colonies of bacteria, usually characterized by the and! Poor performance - definitions terms have you ever been in a conversation where people botany... A parasite molecule comprising nitrogen containing units used to classify plants cytol, cell membrane enchant with their beauty sweet! Single unbranched vein, and other woody plants is utilized stems made up of DNA which can move to positions. Loss of water two parts indicating the relative abilities of pigments to absorb nutrients nutrients in plants! Through which the organelles are sites of manufacture of drugs or products intended human... Dedifferentiate: pertaining to the natural environment in which only microspores are formed an! Dominant allele are of various types, ranging from edible with medicinal properties, to poisonous! Nitrogen Fixation: process by which plants convert atmospheric nitrogen into compounds such tracheids! And what is yet to be accomplished this moment in apical dominance, cell elongation, rooting etc. ( herbarium specimen, photograph ) if oxygen is utilized during the process of glycolysis, wherein sac! Integuments, through which the plant which doesn ’ t feature true stems, roots leaves. The case for mitochondrial and plastid genes on basis of their similarities a... And parts Explained with a disproportionately thick stems palea ( plural paleae ) 1 monocotyledons like the grass family sunflower! More carpels that splits in several ways at maturity male flower particular population which! Seasons to complete their life cycle type in sexually reproducing organisms involving alternation of Diploid sporophyte phase haploid.

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