By 55 BC, Caesar's term in Gaul had been extended another five years, as the First Triumvirate continued their rule of Rome. The soldiers marched underneath their locked shields. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Julius Caesar and what it means. Soon, many of the warriors found themselves all but helpless to lift their now heavily laden shields. Ann Patchett, author; her novel Bel Canto received the Orange Prize for Fiction and the PEN/Faulkner Award (2002). Although several brief cavalry engagements had been fought, the mass of the two armies had only stood and glared at one another. 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In September 52 B.C., Caesar arrived at Alesia and laid siege to a combined Gallic force that may have numbered 80,000 warriors, four times greater than Caesar’s force. Less than a third survived to make their return. During his military campaigns, Caesar even targeted Britain. He then built a bridge over the river and pursued the main Helvetii force for two weeks until a lack of supplies caused him to end the chase. For several days, Julius Caesar had watched the army of his fellow Roman but bitter enemy Pompey (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) forming near Pharsalus in the central region of Roman-ruled Greece. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. 's' : ''}}. The Pompeian cavalry quickly overwhelmed the outnumbered Caesarian horse but then ran into Caesar’s favorite legion, the X, which Caesar had purposely stationed at the end of the line to meet the enemy cavalry. Harry Reid, politician; the Nevada Democrat served as Senate Majority Leader (2007– ). Bibracte was the first great battle of Caesar’s military career. In this lesson, we'll cover his campaigns in Gaul and the Roman civil war. Among the tribes, which Caesar defeated, was the Celtic tribe of Gauls. Select a subject to preview related courses: On January 10 of 49 BC, Caesar defied Pompey - who had ordered him to return to Rome without his army - and brought one legion of his men across the Rubicon River on the border of Italy. Caesar later served as questor (a treasury and legal official) in the Roman province of Hispania Ulterior (Further Spain), where he led military expeditions against the native tribes and in 59 B.C. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} Blog. About midday, the Helvetii force, said to be tens of thousands of experienced warriors, appeared and stood facing the smaller and far less combat-experienced Roman force. On the Alesia side of this rampart, two 15-foot-wide ditches were dug, with the one nearest the fortification filled with water from surrounding rivers. You can test out of the Vercingetorix’s cavalry unsuccessfully raided the construction several times, but his men were unable to stop the work. That’s what Julius Caesar proclaimed as he crossed the Rubicon River in 49 B.C. He is a powerful public figure, but he appears also as a husband, a master to his servants, a … Vercingetorix moved a large part of his force by night to a weak spot in the northwest portion of the Roman fortifications that Caesar had tried to conceal; the area featured natural obstructions where a continuous wall could not be built. It means "the die is cast." Charismatic leadership and brilliant tactics gained Caesar an empire and made him ruler of Rome. He pursued Pompey and was almost conquered in July 48 B.C. Another tactic used by Caesar was the suppression of rebels by besieging their camps until they ran out of food and water. Meanwhile, the Helvetii had begun pillaging the land of tribes aligned with Rome. Historians have praised Caesar for his innovative military tactics, his use of skilled military engineers and his natural gifts as a military leader. Caesar became the … On October 2, Vercingetorix’s Gauls launched a massive attack from inside the Roman fortifications while a relief army hit the Romans from outside. Services. That same year, Caesar launched an amphibious campaign that took his forces to Britain. Julius Caesar was a great military leader and ruler. Then he ordered his legionaries to charge. A summary of Part X (Section3) in William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. Julius Caesar used many military strategies to increase his prominence as a political and military leader. He cleverly exploited the tribes’ endemic factionalism, made allies by showing mercy to the tribes he defeated, and bribed others with the fruits of Roman civilization – and when necessary, he waged war against them. Caesar’s next campaign, however, was against his fellow Romans. Caesar’s rule helped turn Rome from a republic into an empire Historian and archaeologist Simon Elliott answers the key questions surrounding one of history's most compelling figures - Julius Caesar. Photo: Hulton Archive/Getty Images Quick Facts Name Julius Caesar Birth Date c. July 12, 0100 BCE Death Date March 15, 0044 BCE Did You Know? Caesar used his popularity with his army and the people to sway their support. Julius Caesar by Shakespeare summary in under five minutes! According to figures claimed at the time, when the day was over 15,000 of Pompey’s men were killed and another 20,000 were captured, while Caesar lost only 200 men. He led a show of force into Germanic territory before returning across the Rhine and dismantling the bridge. He met them at the River Sabis (today’s Sambre), where he almost lost the battle that raged along its shore. The next day he presented his arms to Caesar, ending the siege in a Roman victory. They were moving to escape harassment by Germanic tribes and to seek plunder of their own, something that was missing in their mountainous homeland. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Did you know… We have over 220 college HistoryNet.com is brought to you by Historynet LLC, the world's largest publisher of history magazines. He won his soldiers’ devotion by the victories that his intellectual ability, applied to warfare, brought them. Caesar next pacified the Suebi, a Germanic tribe, killing most of the 120,000-man force sent against him. The siege of Alesia, which Caesar recounted in his Commentaries, is considered one of his greatest military achievements as well as being a classic example of successful siege warfare. Act 1, Scene 2: … The Romans pursued Vercingetorix and captured Avaricum (modern Bourges, in central France), the capital city of the allied Bituriges, killing the entire population. Courtesy of Wikimedia. Again, Caesar personally rode to the spot to rally his troops and his inspired legionaries were able to beat back the Gallic attack. Henry Armstrong, the only boxer to hold three titles simultaneously. Caesar sent away his horse – a signal to his troops that he would stand with them. Using his power to usurp riches, subdue others, and spread Roman influence, Caesar appointed himself Dictator of Rome as early as 49 BC, and he ruled for 5 years until his assassination. He sent his cavalry to delay the enemy and placed four legions in the traditional Roman three-line formation partway up the hill. Pompey gathered his family, loaded as much gold as he could, threw off his general’s cloak and fled. Yet he was aware of the role that luck played in his victories. At the time, Roman legions were noted for their tactical flexibility, disciplined fighting, ability to adapt to changing circumstances and superb organization; but “what ultimately made the Romans unbeatable,” one historian wrote, was “the Roman genius for fighting as a unit.” To this proven mix, Caesar added his charisma, daring and ability to inspire. Another tactic used by Caesar was the suppression of rebels by besieging their camps until they ran out of food and water. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? In his Commentaries, he remarked, “No single traveler had ever crossed [these mountains] in winter.”. As a priest not only had to be of patrician stock, but married to a patrician, Caesar broke off his engagement to a plebian girl and married the patrician, Cornelia, daughter of a high pro… Before Caesar had even left Rome to take up his duties in Gaul, he received word that the Helvetii tribe had begun migrating west toward the Atlantic coast, burning their villages behind them. At the head of these five legions, he passed through the Alps, crossing the territories of several hostile tribes and fighting some skirmishes en route. Originally published in the July 2013 issue of Armchair General. The last of all the Romans, fare thee well! first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. The Aedui, a tribe Caesar had saved from Germanic deprecation, had turned against him, joining the revolt and capturing his supplies and Roman base at Soissons. Be Gone! Low alarums. He stationed himself at the hill’s summit with two other legions, his auxiliaries and his baggage train. In January 49 B.C., Julius Caesar and his army crossed the Rubicon River into Italy, the boundary beyond which he could not legally command troops. In 63 BC, Julius Caesar was elected Pontifex Maximus, which means high priest in Latin. This act of insubordination began a Civil War. Create your account, Already registered? O Julius Caesar, thou art mighty yet! The Roman Consul, Scipio, studied Hannibal's tactics to finally defeat him at Zama (Among some of these were the use of horns which were blown to scare the charging elephants into retreat, causing havoc in the advancing Carthaginian lines.) There was a top secret American unit during the second world war that would fake the sounds of a large army unit in order to draw enemy units away from their assigned positions to guard an area far from where they were needed. These couchings and these lowly courtesies Might fire the blood of ordinary men And turn preordinance and first decree Into the law of children. They surrendered and begged for mercy. Sharpened stakes were jammed into the ground near the wall, and guard towers were erected every 80 feet. Caesar moved quickly into Gaul, creating auxiliary units as he went. Despite several excursions to Britain by sea and land, his army was not at their best in these attempts. crossing of the Rubicon River with his XIII Legion in defiance of the Pompey-led Senate’s order would be decided by this day’s battle. study They simply cast them aside and prepared to meet the Roman assault without them. The real Julius Caesar was a ruthless politician who courted the plebeians, played scare tactics by bringing his army back to the gates of Rome, and ended up by destroying the Republic. All were either sold into slavery or given as booty to Caesar’s legionaries, except for the members of the Aedui and Arverni tribes. “[The Belgae] never gave up even when there was no hope of victory,” Caesar wrote. - Quiz & Self-Assessment Test, People's Choice Nominees: Best Military Student Resources, Opportunities for Military Spouses to Advance Their Education, May Is National Military Appreciation Month, Become a Military Psychologist: Education and Career Roadmap, Best Military Student Resource, People's Choice Awards, Military Psychologist: Job Duties and Education Requirements, 10 Perfect Majors for Students with Military Experience, 15 Scholarships for Students in the Military, Are You Military? In addition to halting invaders, he commanded his army to seize formidable opponents, such as the Belgae of Gaul. Caesar’s enemy, however, had one last card to play. Inside Alesia, Vercingetorix gave his men a day’s rest before again throwing their might against the Roman wall with scaling ladders and grappling hooks. Alexander Haig, American army general and Secretary of State for President Ronald Reagan. Fullers work, ‘Julius Caesar, Man, Soldier and Tyrant.’ (Da Capo Press, paperback edition, 1965). Although the proconsular term of office normally was one year, Caesar was able to secure his post in Gaul for an unprecedented five years, a term later increased to 10 years. As Caesar had foreseen, when the lines collided Pompey loosed his 7,000 cavalrymen at the end of the Roman line. He warned the Helvetii that any attempt to cross the river would be opposed. After withstanding the Siege of Alexandria and defeating King Ptolemy XIII's forces in the Battle of the Nile (47 BC), Caesar helped Cleopatra gain the throne as ruler. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal CAESAR. Most of 53 B.C. In 60 BC, he maneuvered to join forces with Crassus, a rich Roman gentleman, and Pompey, a well-liked Roman general. For example, in July of 54 BC, he and his men reached Britain's Thames River; however, they could not establish a permanent camp because they had to return to Gaul to put down rebellions by the Belgae. Then in 57 B.C., he marched with eight legions, archers and cavalry against the Belgae (who occupied an area roughly comprising modern-day Belgium) after they attacked a tribe allied with Rome. Study.com has thousands of articles about every In the Gallic camp, Caesar found records indicating that more than 300,000 Helvetii men, women and children had begun the trek west. Get access risk-free for 30 days, Deciding that belonging to the priesthood would bring the most benefit to the family, he managed to have himself nominated as the new High Priest of Jupiter. into a patrician family that claimed to be descended from Julus, son of the Trojan prince Aeneas, who in turn was the supposed son of the goddess Venus. Julius Caesar's Military Strategies Military Strategy 1 Military Strategy 2 Using their shields, the soldiers would attack a wall. Peter Carl Goldmark, engineer, developed the first commercial color television and the long-playing phonograph record. Because of his unyielding ambition and daring determination, Julius Caesar made history as a formidable commander and a ruthless statesman. He only was able to turn the conflict when he commandeered a shield from a soldier and personally rallied his legions, forming a large defensive square to protect his wounded and calling for reinforcements. That's what Julius Caesar proclaimed as he crossed the Rubicon river in 49 B.C. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. He was finally able to counterattack and managed to push back Vercingetorix’s men. CATO Brave Titinius! To accomplish his military feats, Caesar also stationed quarters near lands he wished to conquer, and he oversaw the building of bridges to reach hostile territories. Should I Join the Military? Caesar spent the last days of the Gallic War keeping rebels under control with the aid of his legions. Next, Caesar went to Alexandria to capture Pompey, who was eventually killed by a Roman soldier working for King Ptolemy XIII. I don't think he seriously expected to be misremembered by people thousands of years later. Yet Vercingetorix also suffered serious losses and after losing another minor engagement to Caesar was forced to seek refuge in the hilltop city of Alesia (near modern-day Dijon, France). Though he was an extremely successful military leader and politician — consolidating power, defeating Roman enemies and gaining territory abroad — he had his detractors. “The contest [was] long and vigorously carried on,” Caesar wrote in his Commentaries on the Gallic Wars. Anyone can earn Transformed the Empire of Rome During Julius Caesar’s youth, the country was considered unstable. After the battle, 180 stands of colors and nine eagle standards were brought to Caesar as trophies of his victory. The city’s garrison was taken prisoner, as were the survivors of the relief army. When word reached Caesar that a relief force of 120,000 was marching towards his forces, instead of retreating, he ordered his men to build a second set of walls around the first. The outcome of the bitter civil war that began with Caesar’s January 49 B.C. The expansion also regarded eastern and northern terrains. The second war lasted for sixteen years. Caesar also knew, as all great generals know, “if fortune doesn’t go your way, sometimes you have to bend it to your will.” And bend it he did. Nevertheless, Caesar's army defeated Vercingetorix at the Battle of Alesia using a double siege wall, displaying the effectiveness of his siege strategies yet again. He also was authorized to levy additional legions and auxiliary forces as needed. Sulla’s victims included Caesar’s uncle, the general and seven-time consul Gaius Marius. Caesar’s father, also named Gaius Julius Caesar, had served Rome as the city’s praetor (military or civilian commander) and as proconsul (governor) to Asia, while his mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential Roman family. When the Helvetii saw their allies attack, they returned to the battle. Together they approached a wall not worrying about the missiles that came from above. Following his year as consul, Caesar engineered his appointment as proconsul of Cisalpine Gaul (the region between the Alps, the Apennines and the Adriatic Sea) and Transalpine Gaul (present-day Switzerland and Alpine France). © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. Cirrelia is an educator who has taught K-12 and has a doctorate in education. Patton studied Rommel's book and tactics to defeat his Panzer battalion in North Africa. The battle turned into a desperate fight for survival that continued into the twilight hours. By 52 BC, another revolt occurred in Gaul, which was led by Vercingetorix, another opponent of Caesar. Caesar had absolute authority within these two Gallic provinces, and the Senate entrusted him with four legions to enforce his authority. Nikos Kazantzakis, Greek writer and lawyer (Zorba the Greek). at Dyrrhachium (in modern-day Albania). Stone Phillips, Emmy-winning journalist; co-anchor of Dateline NBC. Not wanting to fight Caesar and his army, Pompey fled the country by ship. that he returned to Rome, where he practiced as a lawyer and polished the oratorical skills that served him well for the rest of his life. His work has appeared in numerous national and international periodicals. Very few leaders have had the unanimous support of their people, and Julius Caesar was no exception. Caesar then hurried to Cisalpine Gaul, where he took command of three legions and enrolled two new ones, the XI and XII. Where Marullus try to scare the audience by saying this threat towards them for celebrating his death. In a quick reversal, the fleeing Helvetii suddenly turned and began to pursue the Romans, harassing their rear guard. 129 lessons In his soliloquies, the audience gains insight into the complexities of his motives. All rights reserved. Rome was faced with a new threat: Hannibal. His ability to bring Crassus and Pompey into the First Triumvirate showed his prowess as a politician. Learning about Julius Caesar's military tactics is important for understanding how he was able to lead his army successfully in the pursuit of fortune and glory. What follows are 6 ways the legacy of Julius Caesar continued after his death, leaving an indelible mark on world history and political culture. It was August 9, 48 B.C. Gaius Julius Caesar was born in July 100 B.C. with a much larger force that successfully defeated the powerful Catuvellauni, whom he forced to pay tribute to Rome. Alesia marked the end of organized resistance to Rome in Gaul, which became a Roman province. Visit the Julius Caesar: Help & Review page to learn more. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree. How an educator uses Prezi Video to approach adult learning theory; Nov. 11, 2020. He held this command as Consul for five years. He gathered an army of 60,000 men, including sixty elephants used as scare tactics. The wars culminated in the decisive Battle of Alesia in 52 BC, in which a complete Roman victory resulted in the expansion of the Roman Republic over the whole of Gaul (mainly present-day France and Belgium). The tactical advantages seemed greatly in Pompey’s favor. Caesar chose to stop and fight at a hill near a Gallic oppidum (fortified city) at Bibracte. {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons He pulled together … He also fomented an outbreak of tribes along the Mediterranean, forcing Caesar to turn his attention to the south. Caesar’s men then focused on Pompey’s camp. Due to the trio's power and wealth, they were able to intimidate others, including the Roman Senate. Of course, the bad things about Caesar are a matter of perception. Then, in 53 BC, the death of Crassus caused violent turmoil in Rome, which Caesar helped put down. Caesar’s fate – and that of the Roman Republic – hung in the balance as the Battle of Pharsalus began in earnest. The Life and Death of Julius Caesar Shakespeare homepage | Julius Caesar You can buy the Arden text of this play from the Amazon.com online bookstore: Julius Caesar (Arden Shakespeare) Entire play in one page. I must prevent thee, Cimber. For several days, Julius Caesar had watched the army of his fellow Roman but bitter enemy Pompey (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) forming near Pharsalus in the central region of Roman-ruled Greece. Be not fond, To think that Caesar bears such rebel blood That will be thawed from the true quality With that which melteth fools —I mean, sweet words, Low-crookèd curtsies, and base spaniel fawning. The fighting began when another Gallic tribe, the Carnutes, slaughtered a group of Romans who had settled in what they considered their territory. Quiz & Worksheet - What Are the Counting Numbers? Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. He was known for his incredible military strategies. However, a larger and more serious uprising erupted in 52 B.C. Then, rather than use the high ground for a defensive stand, he moved forward against the Helvetii. Not having the time at the moment to go into Caesar’s career in depth, I have nevertheless tried to evaluate his military status by using the very detailed analysis and research given in Major General J.F.C. From 58 BC to 50 BC, Caesar used his power as a military leader to train his legions and to discipline them. The roots of this conflict reached back to 50 B.C., when the Roman Senate, feeling threatened by Caesar’s popularity with the Roman people in the wake of his Gallic conquests, ordered Caesar to disband his army in Gaul and return to Rome to face prosecution for several claimed offenses. For most of the next decade, Caesar worked to pacify the unruly Gallic tribes and make Gaul a Roman province. PHARSALUS, GREECE, 48 B.C. In addition to having a powerful hand in Egyptian affairs, he also had excursions in the Middle East and Thapsus (western Africa). 1. Julius Caesar (100 B.C.E.-44 B.C.E.) When the 20,000 seasoned veterans of Caesar’s infantry line charged, Pompey’s 50,000 infantrymen held their positions awaiting the collision. A street. To help their plans, they made alliances with the Sequani, the Aedui (Roman clients) and two other Gallic tribes. The Romans rightly feared that the Helvetii would pillage other tribes as they migrated, and that once settled in southwest Gaul they would pose a threat to Roman territory. When he reached the town of Geneva, near the planned route of the Helvetii, he began destruction of a bridge over the Rhone River in territory belonging to a Roman client tribe, the Allobroges. Julius Caesar ruled Rome as unquestioned dictator until his assassination March 15, 44 B.C. Knowing the city was immune to direct attack and again relying on his engineers, Caesar began construction of an encircling set of fortifications (circumvallation) around Alesia. In so doing, he drove a wedge between Germany and central Gaul and devastated Germanic camps. In the morning, Vercingetorix sent a diversionary attack against the wall to the south and then struck the Roman weak spot with men he had hidden there and remnants of the relief force. Hannibal was an incredible military warrior. One historian wrote: “Caesar, next to Alexander, was the outstanding director of siege operations of the ancient world.” Caesar proved that claim at the siege of Alesia. triumph celebration – and then executed by strangulation. Julius Caesar - Julius Caesar - Personality and reputation: Caesar was not and is not lovable. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. G. Ferrero, The Women of the Caesars, New York, 1911. Yet, though not lovable, Caesar was and is attractive, indeed fascinating. Even though Pompey had two times the number of soldiers fighting on his side in Hispania, his men were unable to escape and subdue the force of Caesar's mighty legions. However, the campaign nearly ended in disaster when bad weather wrecked much of his fleet and the sight of massed British chariots caused confusion among his men. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. But by moving to Alesia, Vercingetorix had played to his enemy’s strength – Caesar was a master of siege warfare. It did not take much time before Caesar's political stature grew and afforded him special command of Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy), Illyricum (southeastern Europe), and Transalpine Gaul (southern France). Pompey’s infantry would hold Caesar’s opposing infantry in place while the Pompeian cavalry swept around the end of the Roman line in an outflanking maneuver. Led by Pompey and his optimates (conservative supporters), the Senate fled Rome, first to Brundisium in southern Italy and then across the Adriatic Sea to Rome’s Greek provinces. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. Unopposed, Caesar marched triumphantly into Rome, where he was declared dictator; but he had still to defeat the optimate force. In January 49 B.C., he led his legion across the shallow Rubicon River and entered Italy – a virtual declaration of war against the Roman Republic. Nov. 11, 2020. Moreover, his use of strategies to pursue, besiege, and lay waste to his enemies, while putting down rebel factions in his conquered territories, were relentless and unbeatable. His legionaries first threw their iron-pointed, long-shanked pila (javelins), which stuck firmly in the Helvetii warriors’ wooden shields, weighing them down (the pila could not be easily removed since their thin shanks usually bent upon impact). Praxis Registration & Test Center Information 2020-2021, How to Prep for the NYS Geometry Regents Exam, Tech and Engineering - Questions & Answers, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. While Millan and his training methods are widely accepted by the general public as effective, scientific research on canine behavior suggests the aversive methods he famously uses, including choke chains, physical force, and scare tactics, can … This union generally signaled that the Triumvirate was over, although hostilities were still a few years off. HistoryNet.com contains daily features, photo galleries and over 5,000 articles originally published in our various magazines. imaginable degree, area of Georges Seurat, French painter, founder and leader of the Pointilism style. He gave them grain to eat and seed to begin a crop, but he insisted on hostages to insure their obedience. (1.1,49-53)” This elobates in more in the early part of Julius Caesar’s when Marullus when Caesar killed flavius and they don’t think they should be celebrating his death and for that it was when Antony and Brutus wanted revenge on Caesar. Julius Caesar Questions and Answers - Discover the eNotes.com community of teachers, mentors and students just like you that can answer any question you might have on Julius Caesar Caesar followed this victory with a series of punitive raids against tribes along the Atlantic seaboard that had assembled an anti-Roman confederacy, and he fought a combined land-sea campaign against the Veneti. - Summary & Analysis, Alliteration in The House on Mango Street, Personification in The House on Mango Street, Quiz & Worksheet - Interpreting Figures of Speech in Context, Quiz & Worksheet - How to Analyze the Plot of a Story, Quiz & Worksheet - Finding the Mean of Words by Their Relationships, Quiz & Worksheet - How to Use Reference Materials for Vocabulary, Quiz & Worksheet - Techniques for Building Your Vocabulary, Punctuation in 9th Grade Writing: Tutoring Solution, 11th Grade Literary Terms, Theory, and Analysis: Homework Help, Anglo Saxon and Medieval Literature - 11th Grade: Homework Help, Shakespeare and Renaissance Literature - 11th Grade: Homework Help, Gothic and Romantic Literature - 11th Grade: Homework Help, CPA Subtest IV - Regulation (REG): Study Guide & Practice, CPA Subtest III - Financial Accounting & Reporting (FAR): Study Guide & Practice, ANCC Family Nurse Practitioner: Study Guide & Practice, Advantages of Self-Paced Distance Learning, Advantages of Distance Learning Compared to Face-to-Face Learning, Top 50 K-12 School Districts for Teachers in Georgia, Finding Good Online Homeschool Programs for the 2020-2021 School Year, Coronavirus Safety Tips for Students Headed Back to School, Hassan in The Kite Runner: Description & Character Analysis, Self-Care for Mental Health Professionals: Importance & Strategies, Soraya in The Kite Runner: Description & Character Analysis, The Pit and the Pendulum: Theme & Symbolism, Quiz & Worksheet - Analyzing the Declaration of Independence, Quiz & Worksheet - Data Modeling in Software Engineering, Quiz & Worksheet - Physiology of Language & Speech, Quiz & Worksheet - Conductivity of Aluminum Foil, Flashcards - Real Estate Marketing Basics, Flashcards - Promotional Marketing in Real Estate, Elementary School Math Worksheets & Printables, Social and Emotional Learning | Self-Management, Guide to Becoming a Substance Abuse Counselor, ILTS Science - Biology (105): Practice and Study Guide, AEPA Political Science/American Government (AZ006): Practice & Study Guide, How to Write and Structure an Essay: Help and Review, The Rise of Political Conservatism (1980-1992): Tutoring Solution, Quiz & Worksheet - The Rise of Monarchical Nation States, Quiz & Worksheet - Steps for Long Division with Large Numbers. Facing starvation and plummeting morale inside Alesia, Vercingetorix was forced to surrender. Pompey, now, sole consul, decided to marry the daughter of Quintus Metellus Scipio, a major adversary of Caesar. The most simplistic explanation comes from an adoration for Caesar’s mental superiority, as historians have offered plenty of declarative statements on his genius. Log in here for access. Finally, Caesar’s legions were able to collapse the Helvetii defense, with some of the tribesmen escaping to the north and others making a last stand at the Helvetii baggage train, which was soon overwhelmed. This allowed Caesar’s soldiers to have, as one historian wrote, “the impetus of the charge inspire them with courage.” Caesar’s men threw their pila, pulled their gladii and crashed into the Pompeian shield wall. simply cite Caesar’s “brilliance as a general,” which alone brought victory at the battle.2 Similarly, Caesar’s “personal military superiority” w… Alea iacta est. After a Gallic revolt at Alesia in 52 B.C., Julius Caesar marched 60,000 legionnaires to the town and laid siege to the 80,000-strong Gallic force. When he was sixteen, his father died and Caesar became the head of the family. On August 9, 48 B.C., nearly four years after Caesar won Gaul with his victory at Alesia, he stood surveying Pompey’s much larger army at Pharsalus in Roman-ruled central Greece. Their supporters tried to continue the civil war that began with Caesar’s January B.C! Spent the next decade, Caesar defeated Pompey 's men them for celebrating death... Sway their support decided by this day’s battle ( 1992–2000 ) and was almost in... Freelance writer who has written extensively on historical subjects of his legions well-trained. Rome in Gaul, where he was assassinated on the Gallic attack sons. 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